PATD Training Standards (Stand April 2016)

 

General Standards

 

Validity

PATD Standards are provided in German and English. The German version published in the internet (http://www.PATD.de) serves as reference. PATD diving instructors and members of the technical committee are invited to submit their suggestions for improvement to the Training Director or the BoD at any time.

 

Training Goal

PATD sees their training goal beyond the common limits for recreational diving and thus does not provide training on the recreational diving or beginner level. The typical common recreational diving training is limited as follows:

  • Maximum depth 40 meters
  • Diving with pressurized air or Nitrox
  • Diving with open systems
  • No decompression dives
  • Diving in open water (no overhead environments)

 

Age

Participation in PATD training courses is possible beginning at the age of 18. The course "Basics of Technical Diving" is open for participants at the age of 16, provided a written approval by the legal guardian.

 

Required Diving Skills

  • Participation in PATD courses requires a certificate as Advanced Open Water Diver (Rescue Diver recommended) or CMAS** diver or equivalent.
  • Participation in the instructor programme requires a certificate as Dive Master or CMAS Instructor Assistant or a proof of activities in the area of training support. The acceptance as PATD Instructor is no authorization to train common recreational diving (e. g. beginner courses).
  • The diver needs to prove a minimum of 15 dives during the last 12 months.
  • The diver needs to prove his physical fitness for diving by means of a medical certificate (max 1 year old). He needs to sign a liability disclaimer stating, that his medical state has not changed since this examination.
  • A check dive is mandatory, if the diver's skills are unknown.

 

Equivalence

In general PATD accepts an equivalent course level. Those level may be accepted in lieu of the general requirements or the required skills. It is for the instructor to decide, whether additional practical or theoretical tests are required. The instructor may use the exercises or final exams of previous levels for this.

Should a diver not hold a certification on a PATD or an equivalent level, the following entry requirements must be fulfilled instead:

  • Compliance with all skills from the two previous PATD courses
  • Passing the written exams of the two previous PATD courses
  • Providing evidence of at least 50 dives on the level of the previous course
  • All other requirements for the course aspired to
  • Acceptance by the Training Director in every single case

 

Certification

A diver can only be certified, if the following requirements have been fulfilled:

  • All dives have been executed (with documentation of number and duration)
  • All exercises have been passed successfully
  • The diver has taken part in the theoretical class
  • The diver has passed the written exam
  • The diver has paid all fees
  • The diver has filled in and signed a disclaimer of liability regarding PATD and instructor, before the training has started
  • The diver as fulfilled all requirements (documentation needed)
  • The diver has filled in the certification form

Course modules that have not been passed may be repeated with the particular instructor during a period of 12 months.

A diver gains training and education through PATD. The certification, he needs to earn with knowledge and skills.

 

Standards Check

Some students will be selected randomly during certification. They will receive a questionnaire with reference to the course. In this, some things regarding the standards are polled, in order to check the course quality.

Apart from this, the technical committee may dispatch their members without prior announcement, to check the course quality.

Supervision

All dives take place under direct supervision by the instructor. He may call in assistants for this purpose.

Documentation

  • All training dives must be document in the student's and in the instructor's log. The instructor needs to document the student's name in his log.
  • The entry requirements need to be documented with name.
  • The final exam needs to be documented with name and result.
  • The certification needs to be documented with name.

All documents must contain the particular person's name and a date. Certifications will be stored in the non-public PATD certification database (together with common personal data). These data will only be used internally by PATD. The instructor is bound to keep all documents for 10 years, even if should leave PATD.

The PATD instructor list may be published with training levels, name, address, phone and fax numbers and e-mail/web site, if the instructor has not objected to this.

 

Equipment

PATD does not prescribe in detail, how the equipment is to be configured. It is up to the instructor to accept equipment for the particular training level and the diving environment. The following basic equipment must be present:

  • Double tanks with isolation manifold (except with side mount configuration). Rebreathers need to have a suitable bail out system.
  • Two first stages with a second stage each
  • The right-hand regulator of a double tank must be equipped with a 2 m low-pressure hose.
  • The equipment must include two separate buoyancy compensators (e. g. wing and dry suit).
  • A main torch (brightness equivalent to 10 W HID torch) and a backup torch for diving in overhead environments, two backup torches are prescribed.
  • All tanks are equipped with a pressure gauge. For a double tank with an isolation manifold, one pressure gauge is suitable.
  • Cutting tool, suitable to cut stainless steel wire
  • Computer or bottom timer, backup bottom timer or backup computer for decompression dives
  • Diving tables according to dive plan
  • Wetnotes
  • Compass
  • Protection against cold according to diving conditions
  • A SMB (Surface Marker Buoy) longer than 1.2 m is mandatory for open water dives in the ocean. Additionally, emergency signal rockets and an emergency whistle are recommended.
  • A safety spool (at least 25m) per diver and a continuous line into the open water per team for dives in overhead environments
  • Line arrows and cookies starting with Cave I and Wreck I
  • All tanks must at least be marked with the contained gas mix and MOD (Maximum Operation Depth).
  • The back mount tanks will never be taken off during the dive!

 

Training material

If a PATD manual exists for a course, it has to be used. Every student needs to have his own copy of the used training material (even after the course). An instructor may provide additional material (books, excerpts, tables...) on his own responsibility, suitable for the current student level. No part of the PATD manual may be reproduced without the BoD's written approval, not even in excerpts.

Standards for Diving Tanks, Gases and Mixing Methods

  • All tanks need to be oxygen clean and must be fitted with oxygen-compatible materials.
  • On all stage tanks, the maximum operating depth must be marked.
  • On all tanks, the contained gas mix must be marked.
  • For tanks with pure oxygen, the marking "Oxygen" is recommended.
  • Breathing gasses must match the pureness degree "Breathing air, medical" or at least 4.6.
  • Oxygen needs to be filled with the prescribed flow rate. This is also valid for filling a gas into pure oxygen.
  • The user needs to analyse his breathing gas before use.

The following needs to be documented during filling of gas mixtures:

  • Date, blender name and signature
  • Customer name and signature
  • Blender analysis
  • Customer analysis
  • MOD
  • Gas supplier and tank number of storage tank

 

Relation of Instructor and Students

The relation of instructor and students will be defined specifically for every course. The instructor needs to be able to see all students. Thus, with bad visibility the number of students needs to be reduced. An Instructor may be accompanied by two assistants for training and support purposes. The number of students may be incremented by 1 per assistant. The instructor defines the assistant's responsibilities.

A diver must fulfil the following requirements in order to act as an assistant:

  • PATD Instructor or with a training support role, passed PATD standard exam, liability insurance for training
  • Certified as user for the particular course level
  • Documented 30 dives on the course level

 

Partial Pressure Limits

  • For all courses, the following partial pressure limits apply:
  • pPO2 > 0.16 bar
  • pPO2 <= 1.6 bar*
  • Bottom mix for decompression dives: pPO2 < 1.4 bar*.
  • A pPO2 of 1.0 bar is recommended.
  • pPN2 < 3.2 bar

*In the following situations, the maximum pPO2 must be reduced by the mentioned value:

Situation

Reduction by

Bottom time longer than 30 minutes

0.1 bar

Exhausting dive

0.1 bar

Repetition dive

0.1 bar

Pure oxygen may be used in a depth between 0m and 6m without reduction (CNS% limits are to be observed). Maximum allowed CNS% load for a course dive: 100%.

Maximum training depth: 100m.

 

Standard Gases

 

Bottom Gases

  • Nitrox 32, recommended MOD 30m *
  • Nitrox 36, recommended MOD 30m *
  • Trimix 21/35, recommended MOD 45m
  • Trimix 18/45, recommended MOD 60m
  • Trimix 15/55, recommended MOD 75m
  • Trimix 12/70, recommended MOD 90m
  • Trimix 10/80, recommended MOD 100m

* According to Mayer-Overton, oxygen has the same narcosis potential as nitrogen.

 

 

Deco Gases

  • Oxygen, recommended MOD 6m
  • Nitrox 50, recommended MOD 21m *
  • Trimix 50/15, recommended MOD 21m
  • Trimix 35/35, recommended MOD 36m
  • Trimix 21/45, recommended MOD 57m

* According to nitrogen content of the previous gas.

 

Descent/Ascend

The maximum descend rate is 15m/min, the maximum ascend rate is 10m/min. The minimum deco time is to be observed during all dives, if the decompression plan does not dictate otherwise.

 

General Standards

PATD Instructors must not discredit divers, instructors or associations, neither publicly, nor in internet discussions.

Deactivation of life-supporting elements (closing valves, shutting down rebreather control units) is not permitted. Moreover, tearing down a diver's mask by the instructor is not permitted.

During a PATD course, all participants demonstrate their respect for nature, property and reverence: Blemishing of drop-off and cave walls, collecting dripstones or breaking off corals is strictly prohibited. Access to the dive site must be cleared by the relevant owner. The collection of artefacts or fossils must correspond to the particular legal provisions. See or war graves remain untouched.

Publications, in which PATD plays a vital role, must be approved by BoD or Training Director in advance.

The PATD logo may be used on the instructor's business cards or for advertising purposes of the instructor and/or the diving base. In this case, the individual advertising must be at the very fore. Commercial activities require the BoD's approval in advance.

PATD provides training, not equipment. A binding link with a supplier/brand is not permitted.

Boards

  • Board of Directors: The BoD decides about PATD's actions. Board members are the associates of PATD. Decisions and nominations will be documented.
  • Training Director: The TD is responsible for training standards, user training and instructor training. He is nominated by the BoD.
  • Technical Committee: The TC is responsible for the ongoing training quality assurance. It counsels the TD with regard to training standards and materials. The TC is nominated by the BoD.
  • Instructor Trainer: An IT is responsible for the certification of PATD Diving Instructors. An IT is nominated by the Training Director.
  • Agency: Book keeping sales and certificate administration are done by the agency, which is nominated by the BoD.

Higher-ranking authorities are entitled to rule about the decisions of their subordinate authorities. Members of superior authorities cannot be members of similar authorities in other associations.

 

 

Training Programs

 

Course Structure

 

Combination Course

A maximum of two courses may be merged into one course (combination course). The courses to be merged need to directly succeed in the course structure or must originate from two course lines. A combination course must be defined as such at sign-in. For a combination course, the sum of all requirements and the sum of all course limits apply. In case of inhomogeneity, a slow increase is to be scheduled. The combination course must include all exercises of the merged courses. The contents from both merged courses needs to be communicated. The higher instructor/student relation (i.e. the lower number of students) and the lower number of assistants apply. The total diving time and the total number of dives may be reduced by a maximum of 20%, but not exceeding 50% of a single dive time.

 

 

BOTD - Basics of Technical Diving

Goal

In this course, the diver will familiarise himself with the basics of technical diving and diving with gas mixes (Nitrox). He will learn how to master safety drill, valve drill, buoyancy, trim, different fin techniques and possible dangerous situations.

 

Requirements

  • AOWD or CMAS **
  • 40 logged dives
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Course Limits

Maximum Depth: 30m

Maximum oxygen content: 40%

No decompression dives

 

Dives

Number of dives: 6

Total dive time: 240 Min.

  • One dive must reach a depth of 25m.
  • Four dives must be carried out with Nitrox.

 

Excercises

  • Pre-dive sequence
  • Fin techniques (modified flutter kick, frog kick, modified frog kick, helicopter turn, backward kick), hovering, trim
  • Out of gas, safety drill, valve drill, bubble check
  • Deploying a SMB, free ascent
  • Using the backup torch
  • Changing the mask during the dive
  • Rescuing an unconscious diver during the dive
  • Free ascent from 15m with a stop of 1 minute every 3 m (+/-0.5m)
  • Floating without using the fins for 3 minutes at 5m depth.

 

Instructor/Student Relation

I:S = max. 1:4

Assistants: max. 1

 

Course Contents

  • Nitrox – Theory
  • Minimal deco
  • Decompression sickness
  • Physics (pressure, partial pressure)
  • Dive planning
  • Gas management
  • Equipment Aspects of technical diving
  • Balanced rig
  • Handling of all equipment components
  • Safety drill, valve drill, out of gas
  • Fin techniques (frog kick, modified frog kick, modified flutter kick, backward kick, helicopter turn), buoyancy, trim
  • Diving in a team
  • Communication skills (active/passive communication, hand signs, lamp signs, touch contact, wetnotes)
  • Stress management

 

Instructor

BOTD Instructor

 

 

Tech I

Goal

The diver will familiarise himself with the basics of decompression diving. After this course, the diver will comprehend the basics of decompression theory and will be able to execute dives with moderate decompression and gas changes. He will learn how to dive with an additional stage tank and how to perform a gas change.

 

Requirements

  • BOTD diver
  • 60 logged dives
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Course Limits

Maximum depth: 45m

Trimix (21/35)

Maximum oxygen content: 50%

Max equipment: double tank and one stage tank

 

Dives

Number of dives: 6

Total dive time: 150 Min.

  • Two dives must reach a depth of at least 33m.
  • Three dives must include a gas change.

 

Exercises

  • Pre-dive sequence
  • Defining the minute volume
  • 2 minutes of hovering, max depth 6m, max. depth variance ± 0.5m
  • Mounting / unmounting the stage tank in shallow water
  • Passing-on the stage tanks in the team
  • Keeping a constant descent/ascent rate
  • Diving a distance of 50m without mask
  • Diving a distance of 10m while holding breath, gas sharing for 2 minutes.
  • Changing the mask during the dive
  • Deploying a SMB during 2 dives
  • Free ascent with line reference (SMB)
  • Out of gas, safety drill, valve drill
  • Free ascent while breathing from the buddy's long hose (out of gas) until gas change depths
  • Rescuing an unconscious diver during the dive

 

Instructor/Student Relation

I:S = max. 1:4

Assistants: max. 2

 

Course Contents

  • Dive planning (goal, gas planning, decompression, time limit, task sharing in the team)
  • Introduction to decompression theory and ratio deco (45m)
  • Decompression sickness
  • Factors promoting decompression sickness
  • Treating decompression sickness
  • Creating decompression plans
  • Decompression methods (blue water, lift bag/reel, constant reference, line/shot line)
  • Introduction to diving with stage tanks
  • Executing gas changes
  • Gas management
  • Standard gases and their use
  • CO2 difficulties
  • Stress management
  • Emergency management afloat and ashore

 

Instructor

Tech I Instructor

 

Tech II

Goal

In this course, the diver will extend his decompression diving skills and be enabled, to execute dives with two gas changes. Trimix up to 18/45 may be used as breathing gas. For decompression, pure oxygen is added.

 

Requirements

  • Tech I diver
  • 100 logged dives
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Course Limits

Maximum depth: 60m

Trimix 18/45

Maximum oxygen content: 100%

Max. 2 stage tanks, double tank

 

Dives

Number of dives: 6

Total dive time: 180 Min.

  • One dive must reach a depth of 50m.
  • Two dives must reach a depth of at least 40m.
  • All dives must include two gas changes.
  • Two dives must include decompression with pure oxygen.
  • Four dives must be carried out with double tank and two stage tanks.

 

Excercises

  • Pre-dive sequence
  • 3 minutes of hovering in 6m depth, max. depth variance ± 0.25m
  • Mounting/Dismounting stage tanks in shallow water (max. 3m), followed by regulator change.
  • Observing the defined ascend rates and deco stop depths
  • Diving a distance of 10 m while holding breath, gas sharing for 2 minutes.
  • Deploying a SMB during 2 dives
  • Changing the mask during the dive
  • Free ascent with line reference (SMB)
  • Out of gas, safety drill, valve drill
  • Rescuing an unconscious diver

 

Instructor/Student Relation

I:S = max. 1:4

Assistants: max. 2

 

Course Contents

  • Dive planning (goal, gas planning, decompression, time limit, task sharing in the team)
  • Trimix theory (hypoxia, hyperoxia, gas breaks, narcosis)
  • Advanced decompression theory and ratio deco (60m)
  • Deep Dive Psychology
  • Risk analysis
  • Stress management
  • Creating decompression tables
  • Diving with Trimix 18/45
  • CO2 difficulties
  • Cold, treating hypothermia, heating systems
  • Dive planning, conducting emergency case examples (what if)
  • Gas management, rock bottom rule

 

Instructor

Tech II Instructor

 

 

Tech III

Goal

The diver learns how to execute deep dives with hypoxic Trimix. Decompression, dive planning and protection against the cold will be optimised theoretically and practically.

 

Requirements

  • Tech II diver
  • 150 logged dives
  •  50 TG dives deeper than 35m
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Course Limits

Maximum depth: 100m, the certificate is depth-wise not limited, if the partial pressure limits are observed.

 

Dives

Number of dives: 5

Total dive time: 200 Min.

Total bottom time: 30 Min.

  • Three dives must reach a depth of at least 60m, one dive must reach a depth of at least 70m.
  • All dives must include two gas changes.
  • Three dives must be executed with 3 stage tanks.

 

Exercises

  • 3 minutes of hovering in 6m depth, max. depth variance ± 0.25m
  • Mounting/Dismounting stage tanks in shallow water (max. 3m), followed by regulator change.
  • Deploying a SMB in less than 60 seconds
  • 3 minutes of decompression at the SMB line in an out of gas situation
  • Observing the defined ascend rates and deco stop depths
  • Free ascent with line reference (SMB)
  • Changing the mask during the dive
  • Out of gas, safety drill, valve drill, bubble check
  • Rescuing an unconscious diver

 

Instructor/Student Relation

I:S = max. 1:3

Assistants: max. 1

 

Course Contents

  • Hypoxia
  • Dive planning, gas management
  • Underwater emergency procedures
  • Cold, heating systems
  • Emergency procedures during decompression dives
  • Bottom mix/travel mix
  • Advances decompression theory, Bühlmann with GF, bubble models, ratio deco
  • Hypoxic Trimix
  • Isobaric counter diffusion

 

Instructor

Tech III Instructor

 

 

Wreck I

Goal

The diver is introduced to diving to wrecks und wreck penetration.

 

Requirements

  • Tech I
  • 60 logged dives
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Course Limits

Maximum depth: According to diver level, max. 60 m

Penetration in the daylight zone

No constrictions

No branches (jump, gap, t), linear penetration only

Max. double tank and one stage tank during penetration

 

Dives

Number of dives: 5

Total dive time: 200 minutes

Two dives must be carried out in the wreck.

 

Exercises

  • Pre-dive sequence
  • Safety drill, valve drill during all dives
  • Changing the mask during the dive
  • Fin techniques (modified flutter kick, frog kick, modified frog kick, helicopter turn, backward kick)
  • ** Line laying with primary and secondary tie-off and placement
  • ** Following the line
  • ** Following the line during out of gas
  • ** Following the line with blindfolded mask in touch communication
  • ** Line laying during a wreck dive with primary and secondary tie-off and Placement
  • Following the line
  • Following the line during out of gas
  • Following the line with blindfolded mask in touch communication
  • 3 minutes of hovering in 6m depth, max. depth variance ± 0.5m

Safety checks (buddy bubble check, valve drill, safety drill) during boat dives

** Dry exercise/drill ashore

 

Instructor/Student Relation

I:S = max. 1:4

Assistants: max. 2

In the wreck: 1:3 max.

 

Course Contents

  • Limits of wreck diving
  • Rights of the wreck owner
  • Dangers in overhead environments
  • Equipment (lights, line, Jon line, SMB, cutting tools)
  • Buoyancy, trim
  • Fin techniques
  • Guiding line laying, line types and materials, following the line
  • Dive planning
  • Communication skills (active/passive communication, hand signs, lamp signs, touch contact, wetnotes)
  • Psychology, motivation, attitude
  • Stress management
  • Panic
  • Emergency procedures (no visibility, lights out, line blocking, gas loss)
  • Securing the diving boat
  • Safety assessment of the wreck (position, stability, superstructure, nets, silt, fauna, explosives/ammunition…)

 

Instructor

Wreck II Instructor

 

 

Wreck II

Goal

The diver learns how to dive to a wreck and how to penetrate it, even far away from daylight. He also learns how to handle the seas and currents during long decompression dives.

 

Requirements

  • Wreck I, Tech I
  • 100 logged dives
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Course Limits

Maximum depth: no depth limit, must be mixedgas trained, means Trimix without limitations; for dives deeper than 30m must be used corresponding mixed gas

Penetration: max. 150m

Navigation: One t in the wreck, jumps and gaps in wrecks with layed lines

Max. double tank and one bottom stage tank during penetration

 

Dives

Number of dives: 6

Total dive time: 240 minutes, of which 120 minutes in wrecks

  • Four dives must be carried out in a wreck away from the daylight zone.
  • One wreck dive must take 20 minutes
  • Four dives must be decompression dives
  • Ascends: one at a line, one at the SMB, one in open water

 

Exercises

  • Pre-dive sequence
  • Changing the mask during the dive
  • Lost line search
  • Lost buddy search
  • Laying a jump line
  • Placing direction arrows in wrecks with laid lines
  • ** Lost line search
  • ** Lost buddy search
  • Securing placed equipment
  • 3 minutes of hovering in 6m depth, max. depth variance ± 0.25m
  • Diving a distance of 15m while holding breath, gas sharing for 2 minutes.
  • Safety drill, valve drill during all dives
  • Placing/using the line in the wreck
  • Following the line (50m) with blindfolded mask in touch communication and out of gas and through a constriction. This may be done outside the wreck.
  • Mounting/Dismounting stage tanks in shallow water, followed by regulator change.
  • Deploying a SMB in less than 60 seconds
  • Hovering and ascending by using the SMB in an emergency procedure
  • Observing the defined ascend rates and deco stop depths

** Dry exercise/drill ashore

 

Instructor/Student Relation

I:S = max. 1:3

Assistants: max. 2

In the wreck: 1:2 max.

 

Course Contents

  • Limits of wreck diving
  • Rights of the wreck owner
  • Line techniques
  • Descent/ascend techniques
  • Decompression in strong currents, drift deco, deco rig
  • Emergency procedures during decompression dives
  • Laying the guide line in a wreck during deep penetration
  • Orientation in wrecks laying on the side or belly up
  • Securing placed equipment
  • Dangers in overhead environments during wreck dives (rust, silt, unstable areas, constrictions, line traps, fat oil)
  • Dive planning
  • Checks
  • Communication (hand signs, light signs, touch communication)
  • Diving to deep wrecks
  • Psychology, motivation, attitude
  • Stress management
  • Panic
  • Emergency procedures (lost diver, lost line, entanglement)
  • Safety assessment of the wreck (position, stability, superstructure, nets, silt, fauna, explosives/ammunition…)

 

Instructor

Wreck II Instructor

 

 

Cave I

Goal

The diver is introduced to cave penetration (leaving the daylight zone). Penetration is limited to 1/6 of a double tank or half a stage tank. Linear penetration only (way in = way out), one t is allowed, no jump or gap.

 

Requirements

  • BOTD diver
  • 60 logged dives
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Course Limits

Maximum depth: 30 m

Penetration: 1/6 gas from a double tank, minimum pressure at the beginning of the dive 150 bar. Should the student already be Tech I certified, one stage tank is admissible. In this case, the penetration duration can be up to half a stage tank.

  • No decompression dives
  • No caves with inflowing current
  • No constrictions
  • Linear penetration only (way in = way out), one t is allowed, no jump or gap.
  • One stage tank

 

Dives

Number of dives: 8

Total dive time: 300 minutes, of which 200 minutes away from the daylight zone

  • 6 dives must be carried out away from the daylight zone.
  • Dives must take place in three different caves.

 

Exercises

  •  ** Placing the line
  •  ** Marking the line
  •  ** Following the line
  •  ** Following the line during out of gas
  •  ** Repairing the line
  •  Placing the line 50 m
  •  Marking the line
  • Following the line
  • Mask change
  • blowing off long hose
  • Following the line during out of gas, 50 m or 5 min
  • Repairing the line
  • Following the line eyes closed in touch communication and out of gas in every position (first, second or third diver and wing to wing) 50 m
  • Ending the dive using the backup torch
  • 3 minutes of hovering in 6m depth, max. depth variance ± 0.5m
  • Pre-dive sequence
  • Valve drill, safety drill during all dives
  • Defining the minute volume
  • Lost diver search/lost line search
  • Diving a distance of 15m while holding breath, out of gas
  • Fin techniques (modified flutter kick, frog kick, modified frog kick, helicopter turn, backward kick, pull and glide)

** Dry exercise/drill ashore

 

Instructor/Student Relation

I:S = max. 1:3

 

Course Contents

  • Cave I Limits
  • Cave protection
  • Rights of the land owner
  • Accident analysis
  • Basics of cave forming
  • Equipment (mask/fins, lights, instruments, lines, cutting tools…)
  • Buoyancy, trim
  • Fin techniques (see exercises)
  • Laying the line for cave diving
  • Dive planning
  • Gas management
  • Communication (hand signs, light signs, touch communication)
  • Psychology, motivation, attitude
  • Stress management
  • Panic
  • Emergency procedures (no visibility, lights out, line blocking, gas loss, lost line, lost diver)
  • Geology of cave forming, karst phenomena
  • Dangers in overhead environments (water, ceiling, limited space, darkness, visibility, current, constrictions, mazes, line traps, air pockets…)
  • Redundancy

 

Instructor

Cave I Instructor

 

Cave II

Goal

The diver extends the cave penetration. Penetration is limited to 1/4 of the transported bottom gas, linear penetration (way in = way out), two branches and one jump plus one gap are admissible.

 

Requirements

  • Cave I Diver
  • Tech I Diver
  • 150 logged dives
  • 30 cave dives on Cave I level
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Course Limits

Maximum depth: 60m, according possibly excisting mixgas training; for dives deeper than 30m must be used corresponding mixed gas

Penetration: 1/4 of the bottom gas

No caves with inflowing current

Two stage tanks

 

Dives

Number of dives: 6

Total dive time: 200 minutes, of which 160 minutes in the cave

  • All dives must be carried out away from the daylight zone.
  • Dives must take place in two different caves.
  • Two dives must be decompression dives.
  • After the course, the diver must be familiar with five different cave systems.

 

Exercises

  • ** Lost line search
  • ** Laying a jump line
  • ** Marking the line
  • Lost line search
  • Laying a jump line
  • Marking the line
  • Pre-dive sequence
  • Valve drill, safety drill

** Dry exercise/drill ashore

 

Instructor/Student Relation

I:S = max. 1:3

 

Course Contents

  • Laying jumps, line markers
  • Different types of reels and their use
  • Navigation in a cave maze
  • Special decompression techniques during cave dives (e. g. yo-yo cave profile)
  • Dive planning with deco
  • Gas management
  • Emergency procedures (lost buddy, lost line, los gas, lights out, lost orientation)

 

Instructor

Cave II Instructor

 

 

Cave III

Goal

In principle, the diver penetrates caves without limitation. The diver gets additional information on navigating in a maze and an introduction to planning and executing exploration dives with several stage tanks.

 

Requirements

  • 200 logged dives
  • Cave II Diver
  • Tech II Diver
  • 50 cave dives on Cave II level
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Course Limits

Maximum depth: no depth limit, must be mixedgas trained, means Trimix without limitations; for dives deeper than 30m must be used corresponding mixed gas

 

Dives

Number of dives: 6

Total dive time: 300 minutes, of which 240 minutes in the cave

  • All dives must be carried out away from the daylight zone.
  • Dives must take place in three different caves.
  • One cave dive must take at least 100 minutes in the cave.
  • Two dives must be decompression dives.
  • After the course, the diver must be familiar with seven different cave systems.
  • During the course, the diver must master one traverse or a loop, which would exceed the thirds rule in a single dive.

At least two of the following dives must be carried out:

  • Scooter dive (DPV)
  • Stage dive
  • Sidemount dive
  • Diving in sinkholes *
  • Diving in strong currents (source)
  • Combination of dry cave and diving cave
  • Survey dive (mapping)

* When diving in sinkholes (siphon, downstream systems), the instructor dives in first and leaves last. The current can only be as strong, as it is possible to easily go against it by using the fins only. The dive is to be carried out along the wall. Areas with huge height differences are to be avoided.

 

Exercises

  • Following the line (100m) with blindfolded mask in touch communication and out of gas and through a constriction.
  • Checks (buddy check, bubble check, valve drill, safety drill)

 

Instructor/Student Relation

I:S = max. 1:3

 

Course Contents

  • Planning of loops and traverses (two dive/three dive philosophy)
  • Difficulties regarding visual gaps and trust me dives
  • Basics of scooter dives in caves (DPV)
  • Stage diving
  • Introduction to sidemount configurations
  • Diving in sinkholes
  • Diving in strong currents (source)
  • Combination of dry cave and diving cave
  • Survey dive (mapping)

 

Instructor

Cave III Instructor

 

 

PSCR – Full Range

Goal

The diver familiarises himself with the basics of diving with PSCR systems up to Trimix diving.

 

Requirements

  • Tech II
  • 250 logged dives
  • Diver-owned PSCR
  • Minimum age 21 years
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Course Limits

Maximum depth: 90 m, the certification is without depth limit

 

Dives

Number of dives: 10

Total dive time: 400 Min.

  • All dives must be carried out with a PSCR.
  • At least 6 dives must be carried out with stages.
  • 2 dives must lead to at least 55m.
  • 2 dives must include at least two gas changes.
  • One dive must take at least 120 minutes.

 

Exercises

  • 3 minutes of hovering in 6 m depth, max. depth variance ± 0.5 m
  • Pre-dive sequence
  • Safety drill, valve drill, out of gas
  • Retrieving the loop
  • Changing to bail out system
  • Stage handling
  • Gas change
  • Observing the defined ascend rates and deco stop depths
  • Emergency procedures
  • Rescuing an unconscious diver
  • **Assembling the unit
  • **Unit safety check
  • **Cleaning the unit
  • **Rebreather troubleshooting

** Dry exercise/drill ashore

 

Instructor/Student Relation

I:S = max. 1:2

Assistants: max. 1

 

Course Contents

  • Rebreather basics
  • Rebreather types
  • Specific features of a PSCR
  • Difficulties regarding oxygen poisoning during a dive, oxygen control units
  • Difficulties regarding hypoxia
  • Risk analysis
  • Difficulties regarding carbon dioxide during a dive
  • Using the scrubber
  • Oxygen partial pressure
  • Procedures
  • Device configurations
  • Oxygen drop
  • Dive planning (MOD, END, deco, gas management, CNS%)
  • Gas mix change during a dive
  • Risk analysis
  • Using the switch block
  • Decompression procedures
  • Maintaining and servicing the unit

 

Instructor

PSCR Instructor

 

Specialty Program

 

Gas Blender

Goal

The diver familiarises himself with theoretical and practical basics and safety rules for creating gas mixtures.

 

Requirements

None

 

Course Limits

Gas mixtures containing air, oxygen and helium

Decanting argon

 

Dives

None

 

Exercises

  • Creating a Nitrox 32 mix
  • Creating Trimix

 

Instructor/Student Relation

-

Course Contents

  • Calculating Nitrox / Trimix mixes, remaining blends, topping-up
  • Mixing software
  • Real gases and ideal gases
  • Mixing methods - overview: Partial pressure with pure gases and premix, DNA membrane, continuous flow, weight
  • Mixing devices, pumping gases
  • Gas analysis
  • Mixing documentation
  • Special characteristics of oxygen
  • Oxygen pureness and oxygen compatibility
  • Gas and gas mix suppliers
  • Marking gas mixtures

 

Instructor

Gasblender Instructor

 

 

DPV - Diver Propulsion Vehicle

Goal

The diver learns how to use a scooter.

 

Requirements

  • BOTD
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Course Limits

  • At most 75% of the no deco time limit
  • Max. 30m depth
  • Open water

 

Dives

4 dives with scooter

 

Exercises

  • Buoyancy, trim
  • Towing the buddy, even with out of gas
  • Towing a backup scooter

 

Instructor/Student Relation

1:2

Assistants: Max: 1

 

Course Contents

  • Scooter setup
  • Maintenance and service
  • Using a scooter
  • Scootering techniques
  • Towing
  • Gas management
  • Dive planning
  • Dangers while using a scooter

 

Instructor

DPV Instructor

 

SRT - Single Rope Techniques

Goal

Learning the single rope techniques.

 

Requirements

None

 

Course Limits

Max. continuous abseiling distance 50m

 

Dives

None

 

Exercises

  • Rope knowledge and rope maintenance
  • Knot knowledge
  • Using a sit harness, chest harness, abseiling equipment, ascender and safety lunges
  • Anchors
  • Abseiling on a single rope and passing an intermediate anchor
  • Ascending on a single rope and passing an intermediate anchor
  • Crossing over on a horizontal rope

 

Instructor/Student Relation

1:2

 

Instructor

SRT Instructor

 

 

Technical Ice Diver

 

Goal

The diver will familiarize with the autonomous diving of frozen Waters. He gets an introduction into guideline skills.

 

Requirements

BOTD-Taucher

 

Course Limits

Penetration to 1/6 of a double tank

At least seperable double 7 l

Only standing waters

No dekompression dives

max. depth 30m

 

Dives

  • 2 in open water
  • 2 under ice

 

Exercises

  • Fixing the line
  • Placing the line**
  • Following the line**
  • propulsion
  • tation & trim
  • emergency procedures
  • Lost line,
  • Lost diver,
  • Out of Gas

 

**dry exercice / drill ashore

 

 

Course Contents

  • Course limits
  • Selection of diving spot
  • Preparation of diving spot
  • diveplanning

 

ISV

1:2

 

Instructor

Technical Ice Diver Instructor

 

 

Sidemount

 

 

Basic Sidemount

 

Goal

In this course, the diver will familiarise himself with the basics of sidemount diving and diving with gas mixes (Nitrox). He will learn how to master safety drill, valve drill, buoyancy, trim, different fin techniques and possible dangerous situations.

Requirements

  • AOWD or CMAS **
  • 40 logged dives
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

Course Limits

  • Maximum oxygen content: 40%
  • No decompression dives

Dives

  • Number of dives: 6
  • Total dive time: 240 Min.
  • One dive must reach a depth of 25m.
  • Four dives must be carried out with Nitrox.
  • 2 sidemount tanks, one with a long hose

Exercises

  • Pre-dive sequence (mounting tanks, bubble check)
  • Entering and exiting the water from a boat or jetty (mounting tanks at land) and shore (mounting tanks in water)
  • Fin techniques (modified flutter kick, frog kick, modified frog kick, helicopter turn, backward kick), hovering, trim
  • Out of gas, safety drill, valve drill, bubble check
  • Valve feathering
  • Deploying a SMB, free ascent
  • Using the backup torch
  • Changing the mask during the dive
  • Rescuing an unconscious diver during the dive
  • Free ascent from 15m with a stop of 1 minute every 3 m (+/-0.5m)
  • Floating without using the fins for 3 minutes at 5m depth.

Course Contents

  • Nitrox – Theory
  • Minimal deco
  • Decompression sickness
  • Physics (pressure, partial pressure)
  • Dive planning
  • Gas management incl. usage of both sidemount tanks
  • Equipment aspects of sidemount diving
    • different types of harness and wings
    • tanks: attachment, size, buoyancy, steal compared to aluminium
    • regulator configuration
    • configuration difference between: wet suit, dry suit for water temperature above 10°C and dry suit in cold water (below 10°C)
  • Balanced rig
    • needed tank adjustment for head or foot heavy
    • needed tank adjustment for valve rotation
  • Handling of all equipment components
  • Safety drill, valve drill, out of gas
  • Fin techniques (frog kick, modified frog kick, modified flutter kick, backward kick, helicopter turn), buoyancy, trim
  • Diving in a team
  • Communication skills (active/passive communication, hand signs, lamp signs, touch contact, wet notes)
  • Stress management

 

Instructor/Student Relation

I:S = max. 1:3

 

 

Tech Sidemount

 

Goal

The diver will switch from backmount to sidemount diving for mixed gas diving. After this course, the diver will be able to execute dives with gas changes in mixed dive teams (BM, SM) using sidemount equipment.


Requirements

  • Tech I diver
  • 80 logged dives
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification
     

Course Limits

  • Maximum depth: 45m
  • Trimix (21/35)
  • Maximum oxygen content: 50%
  • Max equipment: double tank and one stage tank
  • 2 sidemount tanks and at least 1 stage and 1 tank for dry suit inflation
    • one sidemount tank with a long hose

Dives

  • Number of dives: 4
  • Total dive time: 120 Min.
  • Two dives must reach a depth of at least 33m.
  • Three dives must include a gas change.
  • Pre-dive sequence
  • Defining the minute volume
  • 2 minutes of hovering, max depth 6m, max. depth variance ± 0.5m
  • Mounting / unmounting the stage tank in shallow water
  • Passing-on the stage tanks in the team
  • Keeping a constant descent/ascent rate
  • Diving a distance of 50m without mask
  • Diving a distance of 10m while holding breath, gas sharing for 2 minutes.
  • Valve feathering
  • Changing the mask during the dive
  • Deploying a SMB during 2 dives
  • Free ascent with line reference (SMB)
  • Out of gas, safety drill, valve drill
  • Free ascent while breathing from the buddy's long hose (out of gas) until gas change depths
  • Rescuing an unconscious diver during the dive

 

Course Contents

  • Gas management incl. usage of both sidemount tanks
  • Equipment aspects of sidemount diving
    • different types of harness and wings
    • tanks: attachment, size, buoyancy, steal compared to aluminium
    • regulator configuration
    • configuration difference between: wet suit, dry suit for water temperature above 10°C and dry suit in cold water (below 10°C)
  • Balanced rig
    • needed tank adjustment for head or foot heavy
    • needed tank adjustment for valve rotation
  • Introduction to sidemount diving with stage tanks
  • Positioning of stage tanks and dry suit inflation for sidemount diving
  • Execution of gas change
  • Risk assessment with focus on the aspects of sidemount diving 
  • Emergency procedures (gas leakages, feathering)


Instructor/Student Relation

I:S = max. 1:3
 

 

 

Cave Sidemount

 

Goal
The diver will switch from backmount to sidemount diving for cave diving. After this course, the diver will be able to execute cave dives in mixed dive teams (BM, SM) using sidemount equipment.

Requirements

  • Cave 1 diver
  • 80 logged dives
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Course Limits

Penetration is limited to 1/4 of the transported bottom gas, linear penetration (way in = way out.

Maximum depth: 30 m

  • No caves with inflowing current
  • No constrictions
  • Linear penetration only (way in = way out), one t is allowed, no jump or gap.
  • 2 sidemount tanks, if Tech I certified: One stage tank
  • one sidemount tank with a long hose

 

Dives

Number of dives: 4

Total dive time: 120 minutes

  • 4 dives must be carried out away from the daylight zone.
  • Dives must take place in two different caves

Exercises

  • Placing the line
  • Following the line
  •  Mask change
  • Following the line during out of gas
  • Following the line eyes closed in touch communication and out of gas
  • Ending the dive using the backup torch
  • 3 minutes of hovering in 6m depth, max. depth variance ± 0.5m
  • Pre-dive sequence
  • Valve drill, safety drill during all dives
  • Valve feathering
  • Diving a distance of 15m while holding breath, out of gas
  • Fin techniques (modified flutter kick, frog kick, modified frog kick, helicopter turn, backward kick, pull and glide)

 

Course Contents

  • Equipment aspects of sidemount diving
    • different types of harness and wings
    • tanks: attachment, size, buoyancy, steal compared to aluminium
    • regulator configuration
    • configuration difference between: wet suit, dry suit for water temperature above 10°C and dry suit in cold water (below 10°C)
  • Balanced rig
    • needed tank adjustment for head or foot heavy
    • needed tank adjustment for valve rotation
  • Introduction to sidemount diving with stage tanks
  • Gas management incl. usage of both sidemount tanks
  • Positioning of stage tanks and dry suit inflation for sidemount diving
  • Risk assessment with focus on the aspects of sidemount diving 
  • Emergency procedures (gas leakages, feathering)
  • Redundancy

 

Instructor/Student Relation

I:S = max. 1:3

 

 

Instructors

 

Instructor Certification (IE)

To be certified as a PATD Instructor, the following requirements must be met:

  • Passing the PATD Standard tests oncePositive assessment of the required co-teaching courses
  • Passing the instructor test for the particular level
  • Holding two training lectures, where one topic is disclosed at least one day in advance, the other one hour in advance.
  • Giving a training lesson in the water
  • Articulated demonstration of all exercises for this level in teaching quality
  • Commendable equipment, safety-conscious and professional attitude

 

 

Cross Over

Instructors of other associations may cross over to PATD at the same level. To do so, the following requirements must be met:

  • Passing the PATD Standard tests once
  • Passing the instructor test for the particular level
  • Articulated demonstration of all exercises for this level in teaching quality
  • Commendable equipment, safety-conscious and professional attitude

It is up to the Instructor Trainer to request additional performances.

 

 

Co-Teaching

To acquire an instructor certificate, co-teaching may be required. For this, the candidate must assist in a PATD course, he must give at least two theory and two diving lessons and he must have served as an assistant. The PATD Instructor will deliver a performance report to the Instructor Trainer, who will assess the following:

  • Knowledge
  • Diving skills
  • Equipment
  • Safety consciousness
  • Teaching skills

 

 

Teaching Status

An Instructor only holds the teaching status for PATD Courses for the current year, if the following requirements have been met. Should one requirement not have been met, the teaching status is automatically cancelled, without a special notice by PATD.

  • PATD Instructor certification for the particular teaching level
  • Yearly PATD fees paid
  • Every instructor needs a liability insurance, covering his classes for damages (200,000.- €) and injuries (1,500,000.- €). A defence insurance is strongly recommended.
  • In the previous year, the Instructor has carried out at least 10 dives on his highest levels.

Should an instructor not have done any certifications during the last three years, he must take part in an upgrade course. Alternatively, he may publish an article with relations to technical diving and PATD (consultation with BOD required), assist in an instructor course, assist in two user courses or carry out an activity, approved by the Training Director.

Instructors with teaching status are published in the PATD Instructor List in the internet. An instructor may be assigned the non-teaching status by the BoD or the TD (e. g. due to standards violations or after a complaint regarding a gross undermining of the PATD pricing structure). An instructor may be assigned the teaching status again. This is the responsibility of the BoD or the TD and may be subject to certain conditions.

 

BOTD Instructor

Requirements

  • BOTD diver
  • 300 logged dives
  • BOTD Co-Teaching: 1
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Courses to be held

  • BOTD

 

 

Tech I Instructor

Requirements

  • Tech II
  • BOTD Instructor
  • Gas Blender
  • Tech I Co-Teaching: 1
  • 400 logged dives
  • 50 dives deeper than 50m
  • Has held 3 BOTD courses
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Courses to be held

  • BOTD
  • Tech I
  • Gas Blender

 

Tech II Instructor

Requirements

  • Tech III
  • Tech I Instructor
  • Gas Blender
  • Tech II Co-Teaching: 1
  • 500 logged dives
  • 50 dives deeper than 60m
  • Has held 5 BOTD courses
  • Has held 3 Tech I Courses
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Courses to be held

  • BOTD
  • Tech I
  • Tech II
  • Gas Blender

 

 

Tech III Instructor

Requirements

  • Tech II Diver
  • Tech II Instructor
  • Tech III Co-Teaching: 1
  • 600 logged dives
  • 50 dives deeper than 70m
  • Has held 5 BOTD courses
  • Has held 5 Tech I Courses
  • Has held 3 Tech II Courses
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Courses to be held

  • BOTD
  • Tech I
  • Tech II
  • Tech III
  • Gas Blender

 

Wreck Instructor

Requirements

  • Wreck II Diver
  • Tec II Instructor or Cave II Instructor
  • Wreck I Co-Teaching: 1
  • Wreck II Co-Teaching 1
  • 100 logged wreck dives, of which 50 dives in a wreck
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Courses to be held

  • Wreck I
  • Wreck II

 

 

Cave I Instructor

Requirements

  • Tech I Diver
  • Cave II
  • BOTD Instructor
  • Gas Blender
  • Cave I Co-Teaching: 1
  • 400 logged dives
  • 100 cave dives
  • Has held 3 BOTD courses
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Courses to be held

  • BOTD
  • Cave I
  • Gas Blender

 

 

Cave II Instructor

Requirements

  • Tech II Diver
  • Cave III diver
  • Cave II Co-Teaching: 1
  • 500 logged dives
  • 200 cave dives
  • Has held 5 BOTD courses
  • Has held 3 Cave I Courses
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Courses to be held

  • BOTD
  • Cave I
  • Cave II
  • Gas Blender

 

Cave III Instructor

Requirements

  • DPV diver
  • Tech II Diver
  • Cave II Instructor
  • Cave III Co-Teaching: 1
  • 600 logged dives
  • 250 logged cave dives
  • Has held 5 BOTD courses
  • Has held 5 Cave I Courses
  • Has held 3 Cave II Courses
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Courses to be held

  • BOTD
  • Cave I
  • Cave II
  • Cave III
  • Gas Blender
  • DPV

 

 

PSCR Instructor

Requirements

  • Tech III Instructor
  • Co-Teaching: 1
  • 300 logged PSCR dives
  • 50 dives with PSCR deeper than 70m
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Courses to be held

  • PSCR

 

 

Specialty Instructor

Requirements

  • 200 logged dives, should the specialty require dives
  • 100 dives in the specialty area, should the specialty require dives
  • Documented knowledge and experience in the specialty area
  • diving insurance
  • diving medical health certification

 

Courses to be held

  • The particular specialty program

 

 
Druckversion Druckversion | Sitemap
© patd.de